Regional assessment on sexual and gender-based violence (SGBV)

Country: Ethiopia
Organization: Government of Switzerland
Closing date: 26 Apr 2020

Terms of Reference (TORs) Call for Offers

Title: Regional assessment on sexual and gender-based violence (SGBV) in the Horn of Africa (HoA) covering Somali Region of Ethiopia, North-East of Kenya and Somalia. Organization: Swiss Agency for Development and Cooperation (SDC) Duration: between April-June/July 2020 Contract Type: Consultancy Closing date: 26 April 2020

  1. Background 1.1. Sexual and Gender-based Violence (SGBV) in the Horn of Africa The Horn of Africa (HoA) has experienced frequent occurrences of civil conflict and other natural and man-made disasters. The situation for women and girls in this region is characterized by victimization, subordination and subjection to violence, especially in the context of humanitarian situations.

Gender disparities in the HoA are significant, particularly in (agro-) pastoralist contexts, and are exacerbated by protracted armed conflicts and other humanitarian crisis. Women’s lives are generally governed by patriarchal beliefs and customary laws which often prevent them from accessing services (e.g. health, education, etc.) and from making their own decisions. SGBV is affecting women, girls, men and boys in different ways and there are also new manifestations of SGBV arising from these crises that require urgent attention and better understanding for the reasons, prevention and response.

SGBV is exacerbated in crisis situation such as conflict, forced displacement, economic hardship, etc. Women and girls are more vulnerable and more exposed to SGBV, including at times of crisis, which becomes worsened due to lack of system to address these concerns. Moreover, there are significant gaps in the current SGBV response on the HoA due to lack of resources, lack of well-established systems to report and manage cases and actors with limited capacity to respond, including from the government.

In the current context of COVID 19 pandemic, it can make the gender inequalities for women and girls even worse, and can impact how they receive treatment and care. In times of crisis such as an outbreak, women and girls may be at higher risk, for example, of intimate partner violence and other forms of domestic violence due to heightened tensions in the household. They also face increased risks of other forms of gender-based violence including sexual exploitation and abuse in these situations. For example, the economic impacts of the 2013-2016 Ebola outbreak in West Africa, placed women and children at greater risk of exploitation and sexual violence. Although little is known about the extent, men and boys also experience SGBV in crisis situations particularly in armed conflict. The population based survey conducted in the Democratic Republic of the Congo (DRC) in 2010 has found that 23.6% of men in specific conflict-affected territories of Eastern DRC had experienced sexual violence2. However, national laws are not inclusive to encompass the issue of sexual violence against men and boys.

Ethiopia Gender power imbalance, prevalent gender inequalities, impunity and gender discrimination remain the root causes of SGBV in Ethiopia. According to the Ethiopian Demographic Health Survey of 2016, among women age 15-49, 23% have experienced physical violence and 10% have experienced sexual violence. Four percent of women have experienced physical violence during a pregnancy. Only 23% of women who have ever experienced any type of physical or sexual violence by anyone have sought help.

With nearly 750,000 registered refugees and asylum-seekers living inside the country3, Ethiopia is home to the second largest refugee population in Africa. This is compounded by a population of approximately 3 million Internally Displaced People (IDPs) and secondary displaced in the country. Nearly 50% of the displacement affected population are women and girls, and they constitute the majority affected by different types of SGBV including intimate partner violence, socio-economic, emotional and sexual violence, as well as harmful traditional practices, mainly female genital mutilation (FGM) and early marriages.

Before 2019, it was challenging in Ethiopia for civil society organizations to implement SGBV interventions due to the fact that the charities and societies proclamation of 2009 forbids international and national organizations to work on human right issues. A new proclamation of Civil Societies was issued in March 2019 which provides more space for Non-Government Organizations (NGOs) to work on activities related to human right.

Kenya According to Kenya Demographic Health Survey of 2014, 45% of women and 44% of men age 15-49 have experienced physical violence since age 15. About 14% of women and 6% of men age 15-49 report having experienced sexual violence at least once in their lifetime. Only 44% of women and 27% of men have sought assistance from any source to stop the violence they have experienced.

Kenya hosts about 479’000 refugees in refugee camps and urban areas where challenges are faced by women, girls, men and boys in terms of SGBV. Most of the challenges related to SGBV are occasioned by low capacities in addressing SGBV comprehensively. Due to the short term nature of programmes in the refugee operations, there has not been a longer term approach to addressing the risks to SGBV. In addition, refugee camps are located in very poor and marginalized counties which are also just beginning since devolution to start providing basic services.

Somalia Persistent insecurity, gender inequality, the lack of protection by state authorities and the recurring humanitarian crises in Somalia continue to expose civilians to heightened risks of sexual violence. 2 Checklist on preventing and addressing conflict-related sexual violence against men and boys; All Survivors Project. December 2019. 3 UNHCR factsheet, Ethiopia; January 2020. 3 Women and girls are particularly targeted, although cases against boys have also been documented. The fragile justice system, ongoing security concerns and limited access to areas controlled by Al Shabaab (AS) place women and girls in a state of acute vulnerability. A total of 2.6 millon IDPs - which are among the most vulnerable people in Somalia - are particularly at risk of GBV and sexual exploitation due to limited security in the IDP settlements, general poor living conditions, the requirement to undertake risky livelihood practices to survive, and limited clan protection.

Dominant patterns include the abduction of women and girls for forced marriage and rape, perpetrated primarily by non-State armed groups, and incidents of rape and gang rape committed by state agents, militias associated with clans and unidentified armed men. Cases of abduction for the forced marriage and rape of 34 girls were attributed to members of AS. Internally displaced women and girls from marginalized groups are at particularly high risk4.

On the other hand, recent developments exist in the response to SGBV in Somalia. In December 2019, the Somalia Protection Monitoring System (SPMS) online portal in Mogadishu was launched by the protection cluster. The aim of the SPMS is to identify trends and patterns of violations of rights and protection risks for populations of concern to inform effective programming and advocacy. This contributes to improving access to relevant information.

1.2. Definition of (S)GBV: IASC Guidelines for GBV Interventions in Humanitarian settings defines GBV as an umbrella term for “any harmful act that is perpetrated against a person’s will and that is based on socially ascribed differences (gender) between males and females”. GBV violates international human rights and in some cases international humanitarian law; moreover, many forms of GBV are criminal acts in national laws. GBV gravely impacts the survivor’s physical and psychological health, his/her social status and ability to participate in economic life. GBV not only negatively affects the survivor, but the family and community as a whole. Sexual Violence is one form of GBV.

1.3 SDC program to address SGBV: Sexual and Gender-based Violence (SGBV) is one of the areas of focus of the Swiss Humanitarian Aid Department (SHA) alongside the themes of Protection, Disaster Risk Reduction and Water. It is also an area where SDC, through the SHA, has more than a decade of experience. One example is activities in the Great Lakes region commencing as long ago as 2002. Work on the topic then gradually expanded into comprehensive and long-term programming, with a focus on fragile and conflict affected areas. Over this period, cooperation modalities have evolved. It is also a focus area for development cooperation and more generally the SDC thematic gender equality network. Much of SDC’s work on SGBV is integrated into sectorial portfolios (the SDC thematic domains), mostly on health (sexual and reproductive health and HIV/AIDS), governance (rule of law, human rights) and protection. At the policy level, Switzerland advocated strongly for the inclusion of a stand-alone goal on gender equality (SDG 5) in the new Agenda 2030 for Sustainable Development. Switzerland’s message for international cooperation 2017–2020 includes, for the first time, a strategic goal on gender equality, setting SGBV as one of the 4 Source: CONFLICT RELATED SEXUAL VIOLENCE report of the United Nations secretary-general (29 March 2019). 4 priorities. In November 2016, an operational concept on SGBV (2017-2020) was adopted by the SHA, laying out the future priorities and lines of intervention in relation to SGBV in the humanitarian sphere. Through human rights dialogue with partner countries, Switzerland addresses SGBV as a regular item and has established strategic partnerships with key stakeholders such as UN Women, UNFPA, UNHCR, UNRWA and UNICEF and supports the UN Trust Fund to end Violence against Women.

The Swiss Cooperation Strategy for the HoA (2018-2021) focuses on 4 priority domains of intervention which are governance, food security, health, and migration and protection. In other words, the current thematic priorities pursued by SDC in the HoA provide a conducive strategic framework to scale up SGBV programming in an integrated way between the domains health and protection/migration. Gender is one of the transversal themes that is being addressed across all the domains.

  1. Purpose and Justification of the study Based on the portfolio review conducted in 2019, SGBV was agreed to be one of the 4 pillars of the protection/Migration domain, and is also one of the areas pursued in Maternal and Child Health (MCH) pillar of the health domain. As a result, SDC agreed to commission the assessment to be able to identify areas of programming and entry points.

Therefore, the purpose of this assessment is to better understand all aspects related to SGBV (e.g. prevention, response/service provision, challenges, gaps, legal framework, advocacy, stakeholders) in the region to inform SDC’s programming, strategies and policies when it comes to SGBV. The assessment will identify concrete entry points for SGBV programming in the HoA based on the existing Swiss engagement in the region and Swiss comparative advantages, and provide tailored recommendations on how to engage. The consultants should take into consideration and build on existing data, experiences, strategies and previous/existing SGBV projects supported by the HoA teams Nairobi/Addis.

  1. What the study seeks to explore This assessment focuses on pastoralists and displacement affected communities (DAC). Protection and health are the domains of focus in this assessment. In order for SDC to identify concrete entry points into programming on SGBV in the Horn of Africa (North-Eastern Kenya, Somalia and South-Eastern Ethiopia), the following sub topics should be well elaborated at the end of the assessment: a. Forms and causes of SGBV in the three countries of SDC’s strategy: What are the most common forms of SGBV in South-Eastern Ethiopia, North-Eastern Kenya and Somalia, in particular among displacement affected communities (DAC) and pastoralist communities? Who is primarily affected? Who are the perpetrators and what are the factors contributing to SGBV, including root causes of SGBV? b. Regional Scope of SGBV: What are the cross-border dimensions of SGBV between Ethiopia-Somalia-Kenya? Are there any cross-border response mechanisms in place? c. Needs and Gaps: What are the most pressing needs and gaps / overlooked issues in terms of SGBV prevention and response? d. Actors’ mapping and coordination: What are the main actors in terms of SGBV prevention and response, including key donors/states, international, national and local organizations and institutions? What are the roles and capacities of government actors, civil society, private sector and local NGOs in the protection of women’s rights and service provision? How sound, effective, efficient and sustainable are SGBV interventions delivered by local actors? What are the existing coordination mechanisms at the national and loval level? Analysis of power dynamics and interests, which are crucial for achieving more structural change. e. Funding Landscape: Who are the major donors funding SGBV interventions? What are their priorities? What types of organizations are receiving funding on SGBV and through what funding mechanisms (with the amount and length of time of intervention)? What are the funding gaps? f. Access to multi-sectoral services: From protection and health angles, explore the access to (but not limited to) medical, psychological/psychosocial, justice, economic empowerment, protection/shelter, etc., services to victims and perpetrators. What are the available types, scope and quality of multi-sectoral services for SGBV survivors? Who provides them? What are the available capacities? What are the current barriers to access services for different gender and age groups (including barriers for adolescent girls, for male survivors, especially adolescent boys)? What are reasons for impunity and what are the obstacles around access to justice? How access to services could be exploited by persons of authority? How to work with formal, informal and traditional justice systems? What are the available referral pathways? Are the referral pathways effective? g. Mainstreaming SGBV in the different sectors: How are risk mitigation measures mainstreamed in the different sectors mentioned in the above section (f)? To which extent could current SDC partnerships expand their focus to address SGBV issues? h. Nexus approach for SGBV response: SDC has a nexus approach in the HoA Region, whereby responses use development and humanitarian instruments in a contiguous and integrated manner. What are the best practices for the nexus approach in the area of SGBV? What are the roles of the national and local system actors (public, private, civil society) this respect? How are the existing initiatives addressing longer term behavior change vs. emergency service provision? Do organizations have strategies to build longer term (institutional) capacity for case management/social work? How do organizations work with community approaches in order to a) change norms and b) strengthen/build solidarity networks for survivors of SGBV and other vulnerabilities? i. All legal and policy framework: What are the relevant legal and policy frameworks and experiences with reform processes? To what extent are formal laws and regulations enforced and implemented? What are informal norms and mechanisms positively and negatively affecting SGBV? What is their social acceptance and effectiveness? j. SGBV in SDC’s work in the region: Based on the findings above and considering SDC’s operational concept on SGBV, what are the concrete recommendations to strengthen SDC’s SGBV programming in the region? 6 k. Work with men and boys: How to work with men and boys, as survivors or as perpetrators? How can services be provided to them? How can they be involved as allies in changing attitudes and preventing violence? l. Swiss added value and niches for Swiss engagement: Given the existing interventions on SGBV by other stakeholders as well as existing needs and gaps, what are specific entry points and niches for Swiss engagement? Based on the existing engagement of Switzerland in three countries and the four domains of the Swiss Cooperation Strategy for the Horn of Africa 2018-2021, what could be the Swiss added value?

  2. Study Methods

The consultant needs to come up with a detailed methodology on the assessment. At minimum, the methods shall include but are not limited to a comprehensive and systemic literature review, key informant interviews, focus group discussions with all the relevant groups including survivors and case study collection.

  1. Geographical Focus

The study will cover the situation in South-Eastern Ethiopia, North-Eastern Kenya and Somalia and field missions will be conducted in each of these countries. The study may also trigger interest from SDC offices in the broader region, including Egypt, Sudan and South Sudan.

  1. Mission Team - Composition and Roles It is anticipated that the study team will comprise of the following: a) Main consultant The main consultant is responsible for leading the designing and developing of study tools, methodology and approaches, conduct literature review, key informant interviews, focus group discussions, ensure quality control by developing mechanisms and tools for this purpose, and coordinate closely with SGBV in the target countries, ensure timelines for research delivery are met. S/he will lead the study/assessment through the implementation of the study methodology and is responsible for hiring the national consultant(s). The main consultant will be contracted by SDC as an independent consultant. S/he will report to SDC through the Swiss Cooperation Office (SCO) in Addis Ababa, Main contact person: Ms Lensse Gobu Bonga, Programme Officer Health and Gender Focal point. b) Local consultant(s) One or several (for each country to be assessed and/or each sub-topic) local consultants will support the main consultant in the field study part in the respective country and if needed in logistical support. It will be the responsibility of the main consultant to recruit and sub-contract the local consultants, and to supervise the work done by the local consultants. c) SDC Gender and SGBV Focal Point, Regional Protection Advisor On Development side, the gender focal point and advisor at SDC HQ will provide advisory services for the assessment. On Humanitarian side, the Advisor Gender and SGBV in, based at SDC HQ, and the Regional Protection Advisor, based at the Swiss Embassy in Addis Ababa, will give specific insights of SDC program and engagement in SGBV, provide thematic guidance, accompany the work of the main consultant and maintain close cooperation with him/her, be consulted on the methodology and tools to be used, and partly participate in the interviews and focus groups in the field. Moreover, the Gender focal point in SCO Addis Ababa will provide all the relevant documents such as strategy documents, annual report, GBV implementation guidelines / operational concept, etc. to the consultant. Close coordination should be sought with the SCOs in Nairobi and Addis Ababa, including briefing and debriefing during the missions in the respective countries.

  2. Time-frame and Methodology The maximum time frame for this evaluation by the consultant(s) is 35 working days. The allocation of working days for the inception, desk review, NPO interviews, etc. will be agreed on the basis of the inception report and the decision of conducting a verification workshop.

The study is scheduled to take place from April until May along the following deliverables: Timeframe (2020) & Deliverables April 27- May 1 - Recruitment of consultants May 4-6 - Contractual processes May 7-13 - 1. Prepare inception report with detailed work-plan with timeframe outlining the activities/steps to be undertaken during the consultancy; Prepare the outline of study in English; 2. Develop the study methodology and tools for field work, including key informant interviews, focus group discussions, meetings and names of people to be interviewed. 3. Recruitment of local consultants. May 13- 20 - 4. Conduct the desk review on SGBV in the HoA. May 21- June 4 - 5.Carry out field missions to Ethiopia, Kenya and Somalia, including briefing sessions (if the COVID 19-crisis allows it). June 5-12 - 6. Elaboration and delivery of draft study in English to SDC for review and feedback. June 15-25 - 7. SDC to provide feedbacks on the draft report June 25-30 - 8. Consultant to deliver the final study to SDC integrating all comments and feedbacks. 9. Workshop to share the result of the assessment (TBD) and discuss on how the assessment can be translated to concrete actions/next steps.

  1. Security, administrative and Logistical Arrangements It is the responsibility of the consultant to ensure the organizational aspects of the field missions (i.e. hotel bookings, partner contacts, visa, and logistics). The SDC offices in Nairobi and Addis Ababa can facilitate contacts and advice if needed. The offer shall include and specify the relevant costs related to logistics and security.

Taxes, charges and social security contributions will be applicable in so far as this conforms to local legislation. The legal status of the consultant in the country of engagement: the consultant must have a valid work permit or equivalent authorizations that allows such a person to live and work in the respective country.

The consultant(s) must have laptop, USB key and tape recorder to facilitate the work. The consultant(s) will have mobile telephones with sim card. Credit will be paid and filled by the consultant(s).

  1. Targeted Groups The study should be a participatory assessment and learning exercise. Thus, it requires seeking the views and perceptions of key stakeholders in different settings that include: 
  2. Partners and actors directly involved in SGBV interventions and service provision (local, national, international actors including the private, public and civic sectors). 
  3. Members of the SGBV sub-working group in the countries covered by the assessment (if any) and other selected sectors/working groups (e.g. Health and Protection). 
  4. Management and field team members of agencies operating in the selected sectors, including UN agencies, INGOs etc. 
  5. Actors involved in prevention and response to SGBV in displacement-affected communities and host communities including women organizations, civil society organizations and government. 
  6. Pastoralists and displacement affected women, girls, men and boys living in camps, urban or informal settings and rural areas. 
  7. Actors involved in displacement-related issues such as partners involved in the Durable Solutions Initiative (DSI). 
  8. SDC management and staff (HQ, Nairobi and Addis Ababa)

  9. Deliverables

The consultant will be responsible to submit the following: 

  • Inception report and assessment framework with detailed timeframe specifying number of days needed per deliverable; 
  • Methodology and tools developed for key informant interviews, focus group discussions and meetings in the field work, including list of stakeholders to be involved in the study; 
  • Draft assessment report with the findings and recommendations; 
  • Final assessment report that includes: o An executive summary (mandatory) o Findings o Recommendations regarding gaps and potential pipelines for SDC to address SGBV prevention and response, regrouping them at different levels (SGBV specific, SGBV mainstreaming and advocacy related), the options should include indications on key entry points and actors of change, objectives, intervention logic, time-line, financial needs, partners, risks and synergies with current activities. o The final report should not exceed 15 pages excluding the annexes. o A PowerPoint presentation on key findings shall be presented during the workshop at the SCO Nairobi.

  • Consultant Profile Required qualifications and competencies:  . Master’s degree, or equivalent in social sciences, international development, politics, gender studies or other related degree.  . Fluency in English language, written and spoken, required.  . Proven knowledge of the social and political context of the Horn of Africa (Ethiopia, Kenya, Somalia).  . Ten (10) years of experience in development and humanitarian work, especially SGBV, including engaging men, boys and male survivors, protection and refugee/IDPs.  . Experience with community based approaches to health and protection.  . Experience in developing and implementing qualitative research protocols.  . Outlining adequate qualitative and quantitative study methodology, tools development, sampling, data analysis . Strong analytical and communications skills, including the ability to interact with partners on various levels (authorities, partners, beneficiaries)

  • Composition and content of the offer  . Scan of signed and dated letter, confirming availability time slot for the mandate (April- May), including self-declaration of ability to carry out mandate.  . 2-page technical proposal to carry out study including the envisaged methodology with elaboration on deliverables.  . Relevant costs related to logistics and security. . CVs for the main consultant and the local consultants.  . Financial Offer.  . All of the above to be written in English and sent as attached to below email.

P.S: No reimbursement will be made for the bidder's work in preparing and submitting his/her offer.

Award criteria Of the valid offers submitted, the contract will be awarded to the most highly rated bid, according to the below criteria and weights. Offers will be assessed according to the following award criteria and weighting:

Award criteria & Weighting

  • Knowledge of protection and SGBV in humanitarian and development work - 30%
  • Experience in developing and implementing qualitative research protocols, including tools development, sampling, data analysis, and experience with reviews and assessments, particularly in Kenya, Ethiopia and Somalia.- 30%
  • Cost of consultancy service offered - 20%
  • Proven knowledge of the social and political context of the Horn of Africa - 20%

How to apply:

Interested candidates are invited to submit their application including all documents listed under
chapter 12 until Sunday 26 April 2020 indicating “Regional assessment on sexual and genderbased
violence (SGBV)” in the subject line to:


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