Study on dissemination of French language in Ethiopia

Study on dissemination of French language in Ethiopia

Addis Ababa and regions, AA Ambassade de France en Ethiopie

Terms of reference – Study on dissemination[A1] [UMO2] [UMO3] of French language in Ethiopia
 
Country :Ethiopia
Starting date :May 2019
Length of the mission :4 months
Final study :end of August, early September 2019
Under the responsibility of : technical comity in charge of the implementation of the “FSPI”. 
 
Contextual presentation and FSPI
With a population estimated of 93.8 millions, Ethiopia is a multilingual and multiethnic country that is hosting a complex variety of nationalities and nations. French was firstly introduced in the 20thCentury in Ethiopia as the first modern language; it has a long tradition of presence in the country. Although its absence in the ethiopian educational system, French teaching is still on through the venerable existence of cultural and educational institutions in Addis Ababa (Alliance Ethio-française and French-ethiopian Lycée Guebre Mariam) and in Dire Dawa (Alliance Ethio-française), through international schools settled in Addis Ababa, but also through the private Ethiopian schools and international organizations (headquarters of African Union, United Nations…) and NGOs that train their representatives to French. 
Nevertheless, the French teaching development in Ethiopia is established in a divided educational system where the operators are isolated from one another : absence of qualitative norms of teaching, absence of institutions dedicated to initial and further professional trainings of French teachers and a lack of attractiveness for this language. 
One of the priorities of the French Minister for Foreign Affairs and Europe is the promotion and dissemination of French language. In order to structure and develop the Francophonie in Ethiopia, the Ministry has implented a Solidarity fund for innovating projects (FSPI) lead by the Embassy of France in Ethiopia, The Alliances Ethio-française of Addis Ababa and Dire Dawa. 
This project is held under three objectives: 
  • The structuration of the French as a Foreign Language (FFL) thanks to the enhancement of teaching quality : standardization of French teaching, harmonization of levels and French teachers’ skill improvement.  
  • Reinforcement of French attractiveness: invigoration of the francophone community or French learners, development of innovative learning projects and expansion of job opportunities through the French language.  
  • Improvement of governance and management of FFL centers in Ethiopia: reinforcement of French departments head’s steering capacity. 
 
Overall objectives of the study:  
This sectoral study aims in determine the conditions of realization and implementation of actions related to the FSPI project: Francophonie’s structuration and development in Ethiopia. It will lead to the establishment of a diagnosis on the French positioning nowadays in Ethiopia and the investments’ opportunities in this sector for the future. A precise cartography of the French teaching and its demand will incorporate all the institutions teaching French – and through it, the French teachers community, the learners community and their family – but also structure a network in the normalization of French teaching and the structuration of the FFL sector.This precise analysis of the demand and this reinforcement of the capacities will lead to an accompanying of elementary and secondary institutions and higher education institutions in Addis Ababa and interested regions in the opening of a FFL center.  
This project will allow a work on a national strategy of French dissemination: French teaching will be identified as a quality education in order to obtain more visibility and to be considered as a reference foreign language in Ethiopia. French will give access to a francophone community and its rich and dynamic multicultural aspects in addition to professional opportunities. 
 
The study’s various component and objectives 
General/institutional settings 
 
This first part’s intent is to settle an historical and contemporary framework to the study on the former and on going politics and cooperation projects implemented in order to get comprehension keys that will permit to adjust the FSPI intervention framework.  
  • Record on the French teaching in Ethiopia: History of the French language presence in Ethiopia (Francophonie and teaching), linguistic cooperation agreed between France and Ethiopia, diagnosis on the image and status of French language in Ethiopia: opportunities and concerns of its learning: mobilities, academical and professional opportunities, social position. 
  • Linguistic policy in Ethiopia: linguistic peculiarities of Ethiopia and the resulting policies implemented, constitutional plurilingualism, languages ​​of instruction in the Ethiopian education system.
  • Identification of donors involved in language policies in Ethiopia and presentation of the projects implemented (assessment and perspectives), place of foreign language teaching in the ten-year plan for education (MEN)
•      Analysis of international competition: inventory of language cooperation implemented by other countries.
 
Primary and secondary education 
This second part is fully devoted to primary and secondary education. It aims in having a general perspective of needs and what is now settled in order to develop our French teaching offer at those levels. 
•      Inventory (qualitative and quantitative) of French teaching in primary and secondary education in Ethiopia (public, private and international): (1) mapping of schools teaching French language, methods used, teaching staffs (number of teachers, linguistic level and level of education) and (2) study of the needs and the demand of opening French courses in public, private and international institutions.
 
•      Analysis of international competition: mapping of the different language programs implemented in primary and secondary education (modalities, human and financial resources, cooperation, curricula, certification).
 
 
  • Place of Lycée Guebre Mariam on the international education market. 
•      Evaluation and prospects of the Pilot Program to reintroduce French language in Ethiopian [A4] public Secondary Education (qualitative and quantitative).
 
•      Study of the demand for Francophone cultural products with an educational dimension.
 
Higher education
This second part is fully devoted to higher education. It aims in having a general perspective of needs and what is now settled in order to develop our French teaching offer at a university level (public and private). 
•      Inventory (qualitative and quantitative) of French teaching in the university network (public and private): (1) mapping of higher education institutions teaching French, methods used, curricula, teaching staffs (language level and level of training) and (2) needs assessment and mapping of higher education institutions / universities / departments interested in developing an offer in French language.
 
•      Analysis of French language needs in higher education. Identification of sectors, disciplines and priority training levels (Bachelor, Master etc.) and identification of the most promising sectors and disciplines in terms of influence as well as certification issues in French language. Studies of the resources of these institutions to finance and implement the teaching of French.
•      Analysis of international competition: Cartography of the different language programs set up in the university network (modalities, human and financial resources, cooperation, curricula, certification)
 
French for professional purpose
This last part will help to develop the offer of French for professional purposes. Thanks to a better visibility of the needs of the companies, we will be able to adapt the offer to the university network by focusing on the employability and setting up systems allowing the connection between Francophones / French learners and companies.
  • Cartography of companies working with French: quantitative study and study of the needs of French companies employing Ethiopian employees, Ethiopian companies with links to French-speaking countries as well as those wishing to develop partnerships with French-speaking country in the future, data on French speakers employed (number, language level, career history) and data on the needs of the non-Francophone employees in terms of trainings.  
  • Assessment of the needs in French speakers: level required, pathways, sectors, profiles… 
 
Expected results
Overall result
At the end of this sectoral study, the French Embassy will have a database of actors and their needs. This document will serve as the main tool for improving the efficiency and relevance of the actions carried out under the FSPI. The set of deliverables will also be a first draft of an advocacy strategy for learning French in Ethiopia.
Specific results
The territorial diagnosis of the French-speaking environment in Ethiopia will be carried out through a map of French education at the level of primary and secondary schools from the informal sector. For this, it will be essential to have information on the governance of schools and the pedagogical organization of French teaching:
 
(i)   Data on school structure: Name of school, location, type of curriculum (foreign or Ethiopian curriculum), number of students, number of teachers, economical functioning.
 
(ii) Data on the teaching of French: number of French teachers, teachers’ level in French language, level of education in teaching French and / or foreign languages, number of French learners, use of textbooks in class (+ ratio), existence of a curriculum / pedagogical model, survey of the issues of learning French and certifications within the institution.
 
These initial results will have to be supplemented by an evaluation of the pilot program of reintroduction of French in the Ethiopian public secondary education (qualitative and quantitative). This will include assessing gaps in practice, means and results between an existing program in collaboration with local education authorities and existing initiatives in the informal education sector.
Regarding the higher education, the results should focus on the formal sector and enable to develop an intervention frame of reference and define the academic modalities to promote the introduction of French courses in the university environment.
In order to ensure an educational continuum for learning French, it is essential to focus on the needs of French in the Ethiopian employment market. This component will be used to collect data on (i) the existence of opportunities through a cartography of companies and (ii) the need for in-service training (priority sector, level required, trades etc.). This database will enable to target training, especially university courses, on the specific needs of the employment market.
Finally, the analysis of international language cooperation strategies implemented by other countries is part of a logic of sharing good practices: types of cooperation / partnership, privileged levers of action, innovative pedagogical practices.
 
Deliverables and schedule
A monitoring committee will be in charge of the orientation and validation of the deliverables. It is composed of the members of the Technical Committee of the project Structuring the Francophonie in Ethiopia (the Education Cooperation Attaché of the French Embassy, ​​the Course Directors of the French Alliance of Addis Ababa and Alliance française de Dire Daoua and Vice-President of the Association of French Teachers in Ethiopia), as well as representatives of the company in charge of conducting the study. 
 
First deliverable
A first implementation report will be issued 8 weeks after the conclusion of the contract. It will be returned to the Monitoring Committee. This feedback will allow, among other things, to collect the comments and observations of the various stakeholders of the project to integrate them into the final report.
 
This first implementation report will cover all the points detailed in the terms of reference and should include at least the following elements:
·      the summary of the objectives and results of the mission;
·      the formulation of reasoned recommendations relating to the objectives of the mission;
·      the documentation relating to the duly updated project: notes, reports, contents and results of the surveys ... prepared by the consultant for the needs of the mission;
·      the updated agenda of the mission with the list of activities and people met.
 
Second deliverable
A provisional final implementation report which will cover all the points detailed in the terms of reference. The latter must contain the same elements as the first implementation report, updated since the first restitution meeting.
The sending of the final report of the mission must be made within 12 weeks after the conclusion of the contract.
A restitution of the provisional final report will be organized and to which the members of the monitoring committee will be invited. This workshop will, among other things, collect comments and observations from participants. The restitution will have to be accompanied by a presentation support in Power Point format containing the main conclusions of the study.
 
Third deliverable
A final report incorporating the comments collected during the restitution meeting will have to be available within 2 weeks of the follow-up committee on the provisional final report.
It will be organized into four parts:
- General / institutional framework
- Primary and secondary education
- Higher Education
- French for professional purposes
On this occasion, a final restitution session will be organized with the members of the monitoring committee.
All project documentation will also be provided to members of the Monitoring Committee.
 
Terms of the study / Methodology
Information on the French contribution will be provided by the French Embassy in Ethiopia and the Addis Ababa and Dire Dawa Alliances. The study will naturally rely on interviews and gathering information from local counterparts.
The data collection will require several trips in the province and a contact at several institutional levels.
 
Financing and profile of the research firm
The budget allocated to this study is 40,000 euros.
 
A research firm with various skills profiles is needed for this study. The mobilized experts will have to demonstrate experience and knowledge in the following areas:
 
- Sector studies;
- Data Collection / Cartography;
- Knowledge of the education system in Ethiopia
 
The firm can add academic expertise.

 

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