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Ethiopia: Research on the Interaction between Climate Change Variables, Labour Markets and Migration Job Vacancy in Ethiopia

Organization: International Labour Organization
Country: Ethiopia
Closing date: 10 Jun 2018

Background

The project “Free Movement of Persons and Transhumance in the IGAD Region: Improving Opportunities for Regular Labour Mobility” was launched by the International Labour Organisation, in collaboration with IGAD, in 2017 to lay the groundwork for the implementation of the free movement protocol in the IGAD region. This has been achieved primarily through building up the knowledge base of migration and labour market dynamics in the region, capacity-building activities on labour migration and development of employment and skills opportunities in the Ethiopia-Sudan migration corridor.

The overall objective of the project is to improve opportunities for regulated labour mobility and decent work within the IGAD countries through the development of models of intervention, in the broader context of the regional integration process. In the long-term, it is expected to extend decent work opportunities to current and potential migrants within the region, as well as contribute to regional integration, strengthen the link between economic growth and job growth, and enhance the social and economic integration of migrants.

The project’s interventions cover two main areas: knowledge-building and operational implementation. The knowledge-building component seeks to deepen understanding of migration and labour market dynamics in the region, including the constraints and opportunities for employment creation and causes of skills shortages. In this regard, an increasingly important crosscutting issue is climate change and its impacts on labour markets and migration.

To date, there is a lack of targeted research that considers the impacts of climate change on labour markets and migration. The majority of research focuses on the multi-causal relationship between climate change and migration and human mobility more generally. A focus on the labour market dimensions of climate change and employment is critical to understand overall migration patterns and examine how climate and labour market variables interact and further determine migration outcomes. This is particularly important given the increasing incidences of climate induced migration due to slow or sudden onset climatic hazards. Climate change variables not only undermine the livelihoods of migrants in their countries of origin, but also affect labour markets in countries and communities of transit and destination. Identifying and analysing these interactions will be critical to understand the overall characteristics of migration in the region, particularly given protracted and ongoing migration and human mobility due to drought and other climatic factors. The scale of such movements is also expected to increase in the coming years with unprecedented impacts on the livelihoods of people both in countries of origin, transit and destination. Cognizant of this and the fact that migrant workers represent more than 70% of all migrants of working age, analysing the interplay between climate change, migration and employment along the migration cycle is critical.

Given the circumstances, the project aims to conduct research on the links between climate change, migration and employment to build knowledge of how climate variables interact with other key variables that affect labour market and migration outcomes. The knowledge that is generated will help to inform labour migration, employment and labour market policies and programmes in the IGAD secretariat and its member States.

In this context, the ILO Country Office for Djibouti, Ethiopia, Sudan, South Sudan and Somalia, based in Addis Ababa, is seeking to recruit a consultant to conduct the first phase of research and prepare a framework to conceptualise the links between climate change, migration and employment.

Purpose and Scope

The overall objective of the research activity is “to build knowledge and deepen understanding of the links between climate change, migration and employment so as to inform interventions that support regulated labour mobility and decent work”. Research will be divided into two phases. The first phase of the study will review and summarise the existing state of knowledge on the three areas of interest and present a conceptual framework of the links between them. The conceptual framework will later inform a second phase of empirical research. The consultancy in question will focus on the first phase.

The first phase of the study will constitute a desk review of existing literature and data sources that document patterns and trends in climate change, migration and employment in the region. It will also map existing entities that work to address these areas of work.

Methodology

The first phase of the study will include a review of existing literature and data sources, in addition to a mapping of entities that address climate change impacts, migration and employment in the region. The consultant will compile a list of sources (both literature and data sources) on the three areas of interest, upon which they will elaborate. It is advised that the consultant work in collaboration with relevant IGAD research bodies to ensure that accurate and up-to-date sources are used. Contact with these bodies will be facilitated through the ILO if necessary.

The exercise will aim to:

  • Assess the state of knowledge on migration, climate change and employment at the national and regional levels.

  • Critically examine and develop a model that illustrates the link between climate change, migration and employment

  • Identify gaps in data and knowledge.

  • Identify which entities are working on the topics of climate change, migration and employment, and what they are doing at the national and regional levels to address them.

  • Identify how regional policies and legislative frameworks address the topics of climate change, human mobility, labour markets, employment and livelihoods.

The exercise will consider, among other questions:

  • What are the economic and labour market characteristics of places of origin, destination and transit?

  • How are climate change variables affecting employment opportunities in the region and in particular main countries of origin, transit and destination?

  • How are climate change variables shaping economic dimensions of the decision to move?

  • Is migration a negative coping strategy, or does it provide positive opportunities? Under what conditions can migration be a positive opportunity in the region?

These and other questions will be revised after preliminary consultation between ILO project staff and the consultant.

Review Management and Process

Reporting:

The consultant will report directly to the ILO Technical Officer in ILO Country Office, Addis Abba with support from other ILO technical experts as required. It is expected that the work will be done remotely. Regular communication will be maintained over skype, phone calls, emails and video conference as appropriate.

Expected Outputs:**

The consultant is expected to submit the following outputs:

  • An inception report with a preliminary outline of the report, list of sources and time table

  • A draft research report

  • A final research report

A research report will be presented summarising main findings from the desk review and mapping exercises. It will provide an over view of existing literature, data sources and entities that address migration, climate change, employment in the IGAD region. It will present a conceptual framework of the linkages between the three areas of interest and provide policy makers with a foundation to build collaboration across areas of expertise.

The final report should include:

  • A summary of existing knowledge on the three areas of interest, with a focus on the IGAD region.

  • A summary of the national and regional entities (governmental) that are working to address these areas.

  • A conceptual framework of the links between the three areas of interest.

  • A summary of possible synergies between the work of entities working in these areas.

Tentative timeframe of the work

The assignment is expected to be completed in a maximum of six weeks period from the signing of the contract between the ILO and the wining consultant.

Qualifications and Experience

Advanced degree in International Relations, Economics, Migration Studies or other related fields.

3-5 years of experience working on employment, migration and/or climate change issues particularly in the Horn of Africa.

3-5 years conducting mixed-methods research.

Fluency in English and excellent writing skills.

Excellent analytical skills.

Ownership and Disclosure of Data/Information

All documents, project data and information obtained in connection with this assignment shall be treated confidential and shall not without the written approval of ILO be made available to any third party. All the documents provided by ILO, both soft and hard copies are to be returned to ILO upon completion of the assignment. All documentation and reports written as, and as a result of this assignment or otherwise related to it shall remain the property of ILO. No part of the report shall be reproduced except with the prior, expressed and specific written permission of ILO.


How to apply:

Interested applicants should submit their technical and financial proposal as well as other supporting documents via email to the following address - addis_procurement@ilo.org citing “Application for the study on Climate Change, Migration and employment” as a subject.



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